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Wednesday, April 14, 2021

TOP ANCIENT TEMPLE IN TEMPLE CITY

Culture


TOP ANCIENT TEMPLE IN TEMPLE CITY: BHUBANESWAR

Bhubaneswar is the capital of Orissa and this city is famous in the name of temple city of India. Everywhere in this city one can find the ancient temple and all those temple are destruction or scratch situation. There are nearly 700 ancient temple are situated in this city and nowhere in Indian any one can find such type of temple in a city. Therefore this city is called temple city of India.

1.   LINGARAJ TEMPLE  (9TH CENTURY)

LordLingaraja temple is very famous temple due to its ancientness as well as architecture. This temple constructed by then King Jajati Keshari during 10th Century and dedicated to lord Shiva. At present this place is very attraction place for tourist. In this area one can find so many ancient temple, papanasini tank, Bindusagar lake etc.

There are many small temple were constructed in the campus of the temple and all temple are during the 9th century. The government of Orissa has developed this area for the purpose of tourist place.   This temple was constructed from 1025 to 1040 (took time of 15 years) during King Jajati Keshari. During the construction period total expenses was 200 crore (as per present calculation).

There are many small temple seen inside the temple campus and also around of the temple is also covered with  other small temple. 

2.   CHAUNSATH YOGINI TEMPLE (HARIPUR) (AROUND 8TH CENTURY)

This temple is the first Chausathi Yogini temple in India which was constructed in this city (Hariput which is located 30 KM from Railway Station). Thereafter from this place, the concept of Chausathi Yogini tecmple spread to other part of India like Rahipur- Jharial, Khajuraho and Jabalpur. This temple is not so much popular like Khajuraho or Janalpur due to its destruction situation. Many foreigner like this place because of its ancientness.

In this temple you may find 64 Goddess in one place. This place is very spiritual place.

3.    RAJARANI TEMPLE (11th Century)

In this temple at entrance point one can find two snake statues who looks like as gate keeper of the temple. These two snake are King of Nag (Nag Raj) and Queen of Nag (Nag Rani). Therefore this temple is called in the name of RAJARANI Temple. Nowhere is mention on which date and who built this temple. But the architecture of the temple is magnificence.

This temple is designed as Kalinga Architecture   but this design is different from other temple. From the back side of the temple one can fell that this is not a one temple but coloration with many temple. There is no God in side of the temple but from the arts of the temple it can be understood that this temple is dedicated to lord shiva.

 

4.   PARASHURAMESWAR TEMPLE (AROUND 6TH CENTURY)

This temple is oldest temple in Orissa and the Archeologist Department says that this temple might be constructed around 6th Century. The architecture of the temple is Nagar Style and this temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva. This temple is situated in the middle of the park. The government of odisha and archeology department develop this place due to its ancientness.

5.   ANANTA AASUDEVA TEMPLE (13th Century).

This temple is constructed by then Queen Chandrika (astern Ganga Dynasty family) during around 13th century and dedicated to Lord Krishna. During 13th century, Queen Chandrika is the woman who promoted the temple in Indian History. This temple is situated just front of the bindusagar lake near lord Lingaraj temple. nearby the temple you may find the ancient temple.

6.   MUKTESHVARA TEMPLE (9TH CENTURY)

This temple is situated on side of the main road (Bhubaneswar – puri). This temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva. The main temple is covered by other small temple. this temple is the attraction place for the couple. The work of the temple is magnificent arts. This Arts is call Kalinga architecture.

The main attraction of the temple is ‘TORANA”. This type of torana never found in other architecture and it is the pride of Orissa. Due to its magnificent arts, the Torana is used in many festival like dance, Baliyatra etc.

 

7.   BRAHMESWARA TEMPLE (9TH CENTURY)

Another ancient temple which is called Brahmeswara temple which is located in the heart of the temple City. This temple is now on destruction situation. Many Arts of the temple is destroyed now only temple is standing with its last glory. This temple is also dedicated to Lord Shiva.

According to archeology survey of India, this temple was constructed around 1058 BC by Kolavati Devi, the mother of Somavamsi king udyotakesari. The temple is standing over measuring area of 181.16 Sq. Mt. it is clearly evident that the Jagamohana and lion head motif is much prior to the Rajarani temple and mukteswara temple.

8.   BAITALA (VAITAL) TEMPLE (7TH CENTURY)

Maa baitala Temple is located in temple city and 1 Km from lord lingaraj Temple. this temple is dedicated to Maa (Goddess) Chamunda ( one part of Shakti or Durga) and this temple have three head (top) for which it is also called as Tini mundia temple ( three head temple). if anyone see the temple, he / she may think that this temple is look like south Indian design but actually the design of the temple is Khakhara type Kalinga Architecture.  In this temple, people came and taken participate to get some supernatural powers from Goddess.

The wall of the temple have magnificent Arts where one can get Lord Shiva and parbati, Ganesh and other Gods. This place is declared as heritage by Archaeology Survey of India. Till date no one know who built this temple and when but Archaeologist have indicated that this temple is 6th  or 7th century Temple

9.   RAMESHWAR TEMPLE (DEULA) (9TH CENTURY)

Rameshwar Temple is located at just near Kalpana Square, Bhubaneswar and towards lord Lingaraj Temple. this temple is attached to lord Lingaraj Temple. Lord Lingaraj comes every year March-April to this temple (this carnival is called Rukuna Ratha Yatra).

There is a mythology is attached to this temple since Ramayana. The FOLK TALE that lord Rama and Maa Sita came this place during the return period from Lanka to Ayodha. Maa sita told to lord Rama that she want to worship lord shiva in this place. Since that days, this place is famous and this temple name is Ramashwar Deula (Temple). 

This temple was built around 9th century with magnificent Arts. Every corner   have some amazing arts statue. This temple is divided into two part. During the entry time one can see “NABAGRAH” which is just above of the entrance of temple.

10.  SATRUGHANESWARA TEMPLE, LAKHMANESWARA TEMPLE VATESWARA TEMPLE (6TH CENTURY)

This is three temples in one campus and looks like three neighbors or three brother.  When I searched this temple, I found that the temple is magnificent Arts on wall of the temple. Those arts explain the spiritual life and the living style of lord Shiva has been explain point to point. I found Shiva Lingam in three temple which are huge.

Out of three temples, two temple’s wall is covered by stone due to scratch condition and only one temple clearly reflects the arts.  These temples are opposite side of Rameshwar Temple.

  

LORD LINGARAJ TEMPLE

Culture

 

LORD LINGARAJ TEMPLE

This temple is an ancient and famous Shiva temple in Orissa. Many mythology are attached with this temple. there are around 700 ancient temple found in this city and such huge numbers of temples never seen in other city for which this city is call temple city of India.

LordLingaraj temple is covered with many temples both inside of the campus and outside of the campus. All temples are ancient temples and some of temples are scratched condition.

 

  

MEANING OF LORD LINGARAJA

The word “LINGARAJA” literally means “the King of Lingam” and “Linga” is the iconic of Shiva. Shiva was originally worshipped as Kirtivasa and later as Harihara and is commonly referred to as Tribhuvaneshwara (also called Bhubaneswar), the master of three worlds, namely, heaven, earth, and netherworld.

 

This temple was constructed in the rulling period of King Jajati Keshari and it is believed that the King  deputed Brahmins to worship Lord, who had migrated from North India. The north India Brahmins were increased knowledge of Shaivism.

Prior to the deputation of  North India Brahmins, the traditional worship practice was in form of tribal rites and after the deputation, the practice convert to Sanskrit. It is understood from the records that kings and temple managers of different times introduced or discontinued certain services, fairs, offerings, and caste-centered core services during their regime. As of 2020, the temple practiced 36 different services (nijogas).

 

WHO AND WHEN CONSTRUCTED

Lord Lingaraja Temple is an ancient temple and the department of Archeologist also declared this temple as ancient monument. The Somavansh King Jajati Keshari constructed the temple in the year of 11th century (1025 to 1040). During that time many temples were constructed and arts and design of all the temples are on akin. The temple construction period was from 1025 to 1040 (it was taken 15 years to complete) and the total expenses occurred according to present scenario i.e. Rs. 200 Crore.

The campus of the temple is full with many small temple and all the temple were constructed during that period. The temple is covered by many ancient temple and some of them are in scratched situation.  Many Shiva temples were constructed during Somavansh dynastic.

 

TEMPLE:-

Lord Lingaraja Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva (this is place Lord Shiva worship in form of "Lingam[i]”) and is one of the oldest and largest temple in Bhubaneswar. The temple is the most prominent landmark of Bhubaneswar city and one of the major tourist attractions of the state. The central tower of the temple is 180 ft[1] (55 m) tall. The temple represents the quintessence of the Kalinga architecture and culminating the medieval stages of the architectural tradition at Bhubaneswar. The temple is believed to be built by the kings from the Somavamsi dynasty, with later additions from the Ganga rulers. The temple is built in the Deula style that has four components namely, Vimana (structure containing the sanctum),  Jagamohana  (assembly hall),  Natamandira (festival hall) and Bhoga-mandapa (hall of offerings), each increasing in the height to its predecessor. The Lingaraja temple faces east and is built of sandstone and laterite. The main entrance is located in the east, while there are small entrances in the north and south. The temple complex has 50 other shrines and is enclosed by a large compound wall. Bhubaneswar is called the Ekamra Kshetra as the deity of  lord Lingaraja was originally under a mango tree (Ekamra) as noted in Ekamra Purana. The temple is active in worship practices, unlike most other temples in Bhubaneswar and Shiva is worshiped as Hari-Hara, a combined form of Vishnu and Shiva. The temple has images of Vishnu, possibly because of the rising prominence of Jagannath sect emanating from the Ganga rulers who built the Jagannath Temple in Puri in the 12th century.

 

It is attributed the raising prominence of Jagannath sect that became predominant during the construction of the temple. The Gangas remodeled the temple and introduced certain Vaishnavite elements like images of Vaishnava Dwarapalas namely Jaya and Prachanda, Jagannatha, Lakshmi Narayan and Garuda were installed. Tulsi leaves, which are favored by Vishnu, was used along with Bela leaves for the worship of lord Lingaraja. Thus Lord Lingaraja came to be known as Harihara, a combination of Shiva and Vishnu. The flag of the temple was fixed to a Pinaka bow instead of trident usually found in Shiva temples. The temple priests also changed the mark in their forehead from horizontal to a "U" sign with a dotted middle line. The Gangas also introduced certain fairs like Swing festival, Sun worship and mock quarrel between priests after chariot festival, similar to the practises in Jagannath Temple in Puri. The influence of the Ganga dynasty has led to cosmopolitan culture.

  

Lingaraj Temple, built in 11th century, is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is considered as the largest temple of the city. Built by King Jajati Keshari of Soma Vansh, the main tower of this temple measures 180 feet in height. It is built in red stone and is a classic example of Kalinga style of architecture. The temple is divided into four sections―Garbh Griha (sanctum sanctorum), Yajna Shala (the hall of yajnas), Bhoga Mandap (the hall of offering) and the Natya Shala (hall of dance), and the spacious courtyard of the magnificent shrine comprises 50 small temples that are dedicated to several Gods of the Hindu pantheon. In the sanctum sanctorum, the linga of Lord Shiva is regarded as 'Swayambhu' (self-originated) and worshipped as both Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu. It is said that when construction of Lingaraj Temple was about to be completed, Jagannath culture started growing in Odisha. Hence, the presiding deity here is known as Hari-Hara; Hari denotes Lord Vishnu and Hara meaning Lord Shiva. The Shiva-linga in the sanctum of the temple rises to a height of 8 inches above the floor level, and is 8 feet in diameter. Although thousands of devotees visit lord Lingaraj every day, the temple comes alive on the occasions of Shivaratri and Rukuna Rath Yatra.

This temple is only accessible to Hindus. Located to the north of the temple is Bindusagar Lake. About 1300 ft long and 700 ft wide, this lake turns into a visual delight when thousands of people set sail tiny boats on the occasion of Boita Bandana that commemorates Odisha’s rich maritime history. On the western banks of the lake, lies the beautiful garden of Ekamravan (literally meaning one-mango-tree forest). Ekamravan finds mention in ancient Hindu mythological texts as an entire forest that comprised a single mango tree. It was a key element in the abode of Lord Shiva and his divine consort, Goddess Parvati. A variety of plants traditionally associated with Hindu gods and goddess and having spiritual and medicinal significance can be found in Ekamravan.

 


Rukuna Rath Yatra:-

Rukuna Rath Yatra of Lord Lingaraj in Bhubaneswar is one of the biggest festival in the city of Bhubaneswar. The Chariot Festival of Lord Lingaraja is on the day of Ashokastami or Basanti Durga Puja. The festival takes place in the month of March to April (“Chaitra Masa” odia month)  the day preceding Ramanavami. On the day of Ashokastami 3 deities are ceremonially brought to ascend chariot i.e. ‘Chandrasekhar’ the representative of lord Lingaraja, Rukmini & Basudeva. After that, the chariot is drawn to Rameswara temple and remained there for four days called Gundicha Gharand on the fifth day the three deities start the return journey called Bahuda.

The other festival are Shiva Ratri and Shiva Bibaha are also the biggest festival in this temple. thousand of devotes are together in this place and the festival continued till mid night.

Lord Lingaraj is not only famous in Orissa but also famous in India. Many devotes are coming from other part of India and also every day some foreigner may find in this place also.



[1] This is the second highest temple in Orissa back to lord Jagannathtemple


 A Video is attached here to watch Lord Lingaraj Temple

https://youtu.be/x_Eo3aIc_y4


Saturday, April 3, 2021

IMPORTANT AND ROLE OF BRAHMIN IN INDIAN CULTURE

Culture

 

IMPORTANT AND ROLE OF BRAHMINS IN ANCIENT INDIAN CULTURE

The culture of India is an ancient culture and the tradition which are going on till date are the ancient tradition which are derived from so many thousand years. Sanatan dharma is the only one and ancient religion in the world which is continuing from the creation of the world (as per myth).

The Indian culture is continuing the traditions which are described by the ancient script and basing on mythology. The thinking, trust and tradition of Hinduism are based on mythology. This thinking is ruling the Indian culture till yet.

The ancient sages divided the people / society into four separate castes. Such castes are based on their work profile for the benefits of the society. The channel of time, these castes got of discrepancy due to their duties which they are / were performed. The following castes are divided by ancient sages:-i) Brahmins (Priests), ii)Kshatriyas (Warriors & Kings), iii) Vaishyas (Merchants, Traders & Farmers) and iv) Sudras (Servants or the work which are left by above three castes).


 

BRAHMINS:-

Brahmins are the superior and powerful class among all other castes. The duty of the Brahmins are only to performed Rites and Rituals, acted as Temple Priests and spent their lives in pursuing divine knowledge and acted as adviser to all the other three castes of the Indian Culture.

In ancient kingdoms, although the King ruled his kingdom, on followed the guidance and instructions given by a Brahmin who was appointed by the King and given the designation of "Rajguru" (The Royal Adviser). All the Kings used to follow the advice of Rajguru with full Obedience and Modesty before making any prominent proceeding. It was the responsibility of the Rajguru to see that the religion is followed properly according to the norms scripted in ancient Vedas in the whole kingdom.

 

As per Vedic Sanatan dharma principles, the Brahmin (varna) is considered as the mouth of Lord Vishnu. It is believed that feeding the Brahmins is equivalent to feed Lord Vishnu and in name of lord Brahma, they are named as Brahmins.

CONSIDERED AS HIGHER CLASS THEN OTHERS

The Brahmins are considered as higher and top class in the list of caste. The Brahmins were the person who only learn in every books/ every field. After the completion of education life, they taught what he learned to other ( Brahmins / Kshatriyas).

The Brahmins held the most power person in Hindu society. They were / are priests and also known as the spiritual and intellectual person of the society. They spend their time in studying, teaching, performing and officiating rituals.

The mythology says that from the date of beginning of human life, Lord Brahma create Brahmans and thereafter other castes. Lord Brahma is the spiritual father of whole universe. Everything in the universe, including the Hindu/ Muslim/ Christian   gods and from a air to big ship are a materialization of  Lord Brahma.  Lord Brahman is of the nature of truth, knowledge and infinity (everything).

Lord Brahma when create the universe and create Brahmins first, he given responsibility to take part for the discipline and healthy society. From that reason, Lord Brahma given all knowledge. For the gain of knowledge, Brahmins were study heard, mediation to get God, enlightenment. 

The people respect such person who enlighten the society not to the body / face of the person.

In Indian Culture, there were many Brahmins who sacrifice their life in books and discovery of many concept. Such new concepts are follows:-

Sushruta-             Father of Indian Surgery and ophthalmology

Acharya Charak- Father of science of Ayurveda, medicine.

Parasara Muni-   Father of Vedic astrology

Varahamihira-    Father of mathematical work included the discovery of the trigonometric formulas

Aryabhata-          Father of ZERO (“0”)

Chanakya-          Father of Economic

And many more.....

 

AIM AND WORK OF BRAHMANS

The Brahmins perform their duty like as worship God by performing the “HOMA”, enlighten the society  by way of teacher. Homa is one type of rituals  in Hindu script to worship the Gods. In such type of worship, the atmosphere be cleaned and healthy.

The Brahmins have one duty i.e. to enlighten the society. the Brahmins taught other respected castes and taught what they have gain from past life.

According to Vedic period, Lord Rama had three Gurus (Teacher)i.e. Vasishta, Viswamitra and Agastya, Sandipani Muni (Sag) was the Guru (teacher) of Lord Krishna, Brihaspati was the guru of Ravana. In the history of India, Ravana was the first Brahmin person who ruled. During his period, Lanka was build with gold (Swarna Lanka).

The King ruled his kingdom, on followed the guidance and instructions given by a Brahmin who was appointed by the King and given the designation of "Rajguru" (The Royal Adviser). All the Kings used to follow the advice of Rajguru with full Obedience and Modesty before making any prominent proceeding.   

 

Brahmin can be a good ruler but

good ruler cannot be a Brahmin

 

The roles of Brahmins were very important in the late medieval period in India. They dominated the entire Indian culture and created or started many new traditions which were not in the part of Vedic. During this period, they mislead the people and taken the advantage of Muslim rulers for their own benefits.

CONCLUSION

The Brahmins were followed the Veda and did they all work as per Veda. During Vedic period, there are four ashramas (stage of human being) 1. Brahmacharya  (student), 2. Grihastha (to enjoy family life), 3.Vanaprastha (to leave family life) and 4.Sannyasa ( to teach other and who get the Moksa). These ashramas were very important for the Brahmins and for them this ashramas continued.

The Brahmins have no source of income except during Brahmacharya and Grihastha, they begged door to door and offer by the king and parents of the students/ pupils during Vanaprastha and Sannyasa.

After independent, the ancient culture has been totally changed. New tradition replace during the British ruling period. And at present scenario everybody knows that what are happing. In this new tradition, the Brahmins are bound to do some work for fulfilment of their stomach.

The society only recall the Brahmins during Puja/ worship/ Homa time and the important of priests is very limited.

Tuesday, March 23, 2021

NOW A DAYS GOSSIP IS A PART OF CULTURE: BAD IMPACT OVER SOCIETY AND CREATES VASTU DOSA: CONCEPT OF CULTURE

Culture

 

GOSSIP IS BAD FOR SOCIETY AND CREATES VASTU DOSA: CONCEPT OF CULTURE

Gossip is very common. In India this is  also very common. Everybody is interested to issue a simple matter by way of gossip. The situation is differ from person to person and a person is always tried to adjust him / her with their situation. But for other it can be a issue. The people lives in society are always excited to create issue.

 

WHAT IS THE MEANING IS GOSSIP?

The word gossip is very simple word but meaning is vast. For me the word gossip means “a person whisper to another person with secretly about another people’s conduct, nature or tradition”. Gossip which is very negative nature. The main role is taken by the women who takes part to spread one issue  all over the world. The gossip impose the social culture impact in large basically in India and China. Some time it put on the mind or Psychological effects in large.

 

WHY ONE GOSSIP AGAINST OTHER?

The important role is taken by the women of the house. The women have no burden of work in their daily life for which they have time to chit-chat with other women or men. The women need to fresh their mind by way of chit-chat with other. For chit-chat need not require any topic only need issues of someone else. It may be family dispute or any other issue. Once they get the issue, the chit-chat starts which is never ending and they kill their time in such manner.

 

RURAL AREA

 

Rural area is known as the 'village' in India. It has a very low population density but due to increase of population, the rural area has extended its shapes. In The issues come from the neighbour house. The women do their work like cooking side by side, bathing in one place i.e. pond / well and so on.   The work of the women at Rural area have limited work. Therefore they have sufficient time to interfere with others issues. And those issues are spread by way of gossip / whisper. The main purpose of gossip is to pass the leisure time.

But in case of marriage, death, family dispute or any function have huge demand in gossip.

During the time of gossip, they always point out the conduct of that family. The bad effect generated and that bad impact pressurise that family.   The group gossip of the village is create the fake news against others and whatever discuss in the group that spread in large with fake news.

 

URBAN AREA

 

"Urban area" can refer to towns, cities, and suburbs. In the Urban area everyone busy in their own work. Only the work place is the suitable for gossip against the anti-party or each other. In Urban area gossip is less then rural area and the main reason is that the no one is ready to go someone’s house. May be they have no time, may be they are educated, and may be they are not willing to gossip against others.

The work place is the suitable place for the general either it is private office / company or Government office / Company. The employees / staff’s always divided in many group in the office and the gossip is the part of the office and for fun. Some persons are there who have nothing to do with those gossips and only they concentrate with their work.

GOSSIP AND ROLE OF TV

The official persons have to time to watch TV because they always tired due to busy schedule or whole day work presser. Only who have time and who stay in home have the time to watch TV. TV is the only way to fresh mind who are staying in home for them. Most important thing is that the women (for some extend) in India are stayed in home because they are house wife and they have to manage only fair of house.

On the demand and to increase of TRP, the TV channel are telecast the “SERIAL”. The serial is the source of gossip. Many persons learn gossip from the TV and they are also excited to watch that type of serial. All the serial in India is based on gossip.

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OR IMPACT

The gossip is not good for the psychology. The gossip  have bad impact on mind and once you enter or start to gossip on a issue that issue and gossip continue and it is never ending process. Gossip in work place is ok and you can manage your office and work. But who are staying in house, if they starts gossip on a issue that continue for a long time and the mind always run behind to imagination and eager  to express the said imagine and how to implement the imagine.

Due to such type of eagerness, other work have to be left and the mind become narrow and run behind such type of imagination. Many person, who are gossiping, are interested to involve themselves with someone else matter / issue and they become messenger of a quarrel and mediator of a dispute.  

Such type of gossip also create the doubt over every person for which in the future life it may be the hindrance for the growth of family. Only healthy atmosphere helps to grow and also helps in the field of happy life.  

VASTU SHASTRA

Gossip is not good for house always as mind. If someone engage himself to think and create issues then for him have to time to think about himself. Gossip is the matter is “VASTU DOSA”. You have no time for your family, you have no time for your own work, your mind always run behind imagination, your mind eager to gossip for which without any reason you create such type of atmosphere in your house. Such type of activity is the reason for downfall of someone’s family.

If you have to time for your family and if you give importance in gossip, there is automatically created the problem in own house.

CONCLUSION

In may place seen that the gossip is the main reason for social disturbance. Due to enlargement of education, everyone is educated but   some educated person gives the bad comment about the either own culture or some other culture.

The educate person are have good standard of living and they are maintaining the status and reputation but they do not know about the own culture, tradition. They involve themselves only to comment some others where as they do not see themselves. For such type of person try to modify their tradition and what every they are doing that are as per the culture and tradition.

 

Sunday, March 21, 2021

COIN OR CURRENCY SHOWS THE PROSPERITY OF THE CULTURE AS WELL AS THE ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE OF STATE: CONCEPT OF CULTURE

Culture

COIN AGE IS SHOWN THE PROSPERITY OF THE CULTURE AS WELL AS THE ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE OF STATE: CONCEPT OF CULTURE

The currencies or coins have the important role for the human being. The Currencies are required for the purchase of anything. The word “Purchase” is a business  process of the user  to obtain goods or services to achieve its goals. For the development of the state and country, the currency is very important and now days it is a party of life.

The currencies can be leather, metal or paper. But the said should be issued by proper authority and accepted by general public. The currencies which have discovered by the archaeologist are different type with regard to shapes, seals, pictures and metals.

What is currency?

Currency is a means of exchange for goods and services, issued by King or Government in the form of leather, paper or metal.





ANCIENT CIVILIZATION

The first currency was developed by the Indus Valley civilization during 3000 BC to 1000 BC. The said currency was in shape of seal or stamp on the dry clay. During that period the development of clay and clay material was very demand. Therefore the governing authority issued the seal or stamp for the sake of exchange or means of purchase. The ancient civilization knew the use of metal and they did not used the metal as a currency except the seal or stamp on dry clay. From this point of view, the conclusion has been drown that the clay was very important for the ancient civilization.

After collapse  of the ancient civilization, the people were divided into many part with small group and the said clay seal or stamp were also distributed in many parts of country. During the excavation of earth, the archaeologist has discovered the said seal or stamp on the dry mud / clay.

 

MAURYAN EMPIRE

 

         The Mauryan Empire is the first dynasty of India which was formed around 321 BC and collapse in 185 BC. Chandragupta was the then founder of the Mauryan Empire. After death of Chandragupta, his son “Bindusara” and thereafter “Ashoka” was the ruler of the Mauryan Empire.

During Chandragupta, the greatest Economist “CHANAYAK” was the head of all department and he controlled total state’s administrative power in the name of King Chandragupta. For the smooth running of State, on the advice of Chandyak, the King issued the new concept in the name of currency. On every currencies, a picture of the King was.  After the death of king, it was very difficult to replace all the currencies but still on the order of king, the old currency replaced by new picture of the new king during the collection of revenue. Therefore after the death of the “Chandragupta”, his son “Bindusara” replaced the currencies and  during the “Ashoka”, he also issued the order to replace the old coin. For which the ruling period, they issued new currencies on their name and fame. The archaeologist has discovered such type of currencies and scripts. During the Mauryan Empire, Chandraputa who started the use of metal as currencies.

 

The currency was divided into three part i.e.

1.   I) International  ( exchange between two states)

2.   II) National ( for the sake of royal purpose)

3.   III) Local

INTERNATIONAL  (EXCHANGE BETWEEN TWO STATES)

The currency was on “GOLD COIN” with the picture of the King. The Gold currency was used for the purpose of exchange between two States as international means. The value of Gold was accepted by every States easily than other metal. Therefore the value of the currency of thee said States always higher. From the quantity of Gold Coin, it is decided that the said State might be the prosperity State. The value of the exchange was very high, for which the Gold currency was issued in the name of King. It was very difficult to used in the local area.

NATIONAL (FOR THE SAKE OF ROYAL PURPOSE)

The king for the smooth running of the State Administrative issued silver currency. The king and their court employees had the right to use this type of currency. The said currency could use either in the State or with the other States on behalf of and / or in the name of King. Silver currency had the special value in the King’s court. The person whoever used the silver currency, that person must be the employee of King’s Court.

LOCAL

The local market was very important. The king issued the less value currency like Iron coin or leather coin. Those two currency were used in local market for sake of exchange of goods and services. The kings seal or stamp was on both  currency and in the name of King, those currency was issued.

From the above circumstances, it is drown that the society was divided into three parts one was business class, one is Royal Class and other is general Class.  In the society as per the class, the people were given respect. The Iron Age was continued during the Mauryan Empire for which the iron coin were used for the local purpose. On the currency, the king used “Prakrit” language.

The value of Gold and the demand was very high. They knew the use of Gold and the demand by public. From the use of gold, it is drown that the State was  prosperity. there are many pictures / symbols on the coins which shows the status of culture.

The concept of currency and classification concept was discovered by the India during Mauryan Empire. 

OTHER DYNASTY

After collapse of the Mauryan Empire, the entire State was divided into small group and among them who were the powerful, they created the well establish State. Among the well establish States,  Shunga Empire, Deva Dynasty, Kanva Dynasty were powerful. Mughul Dynasty was the last one and thereafter the British Rulers (Traders) were ruled over India. 

The tradition and culture whatever framed by the Mauryan Empire those were overlapped but the procedures were the same. The subsequent dynasty were used the Gold, silver,copper & iron coin and even they designed the coin as per the order of King. But the new dynasty took time to replace the said coin some many years and issued new currency with their own symbol, picture. They knew that in a onetime total currency cannot replace for which they took so many years.

The gold coin was used till Mughal Dynasty. Many foreigner were attacked India only to take the Gold, Diamond and other valuable goods. They knew that India was a rich State and the use of Gold Coin shown the prosperity for which they were attacked many time. The ancient Indian Gold were the good quality and it was huge demand in international market also.

Gold and Silver coin were used till Mughal Dynasty. after Mughal Dynasty, the Britisher taken the said coin to their country because the coin were Gold and Silver. India is the only one State in the world that after exploitation by the Britisher, India is stand with her tradition and culture and the world is accepted the said tradition and culture. If India takes back her gold and silver coin then India will be the house of 50% of total Gold and Silver. Now days whatever the value of Indian currency that also increase and may the value of Indian Coin be top of the life

Finally British Dynasty came and rule over India. They have taken many Gold, Diamond and valuable metal and still India stands on her own foot. The many social and cultural changes were occurred during the British Rulers. They used the culture against the Indian for their benefits like to transport the valuable metals to their States. The ancient currency value and use collapsed due to colonialism of European States. And the uniformity of currency also collapse and new concept of currency over rule the uniformity of ancient currency.  

If anyone see the entire period from starting to till day, the currency was used like Gold, Silver, copper in large. Which shows that India was prosperity and rich in cultural field.  It was not easy to reduce the value of those metal currency and those metals were widely accepted and used by every States of the world. And those metals created the uniformity of value in the world.





CONCLUSION

There are 195 States in the world and every State have their own currency but every State currency are not accepted generally. If you see, there is no uniformity of currency. Only the powerful and prosperity States have the demand of their own currency like Dollar in USA, Pound  in UK, Euro in European States, Yuan / Renminbi in Chinese etc. Every day the value of the currency of many States decrease or increase but no fixed value.

The Indian currency is called in name of “Rupees”. Rupees may be Cupro-Nickel or paper. And now days Rs. 1 to Rs.2000/- (1,2,5 & 10 are coins and 1,2,5,10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 2000 are paper) are available and issued by the Government of India.

Till today the Gold is used as means of International value but no one is ready to use the Gold coin which can make the uniformity of currency value. The States who have more Gold that State is more rich, powerful and prosperity.  


Myself

  • Jyotirmaya PrasadEditor/Publisher